**Conventions of Standard English**

*ELA.L.6.2*: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Editing Written Work | 12 |

Composing a Business Letter | 22 to 23 |

Capitalization with Titles | 43 |

Proper Nouns and Capitalization | 44 |

More with Capitalization | 45 |

Capitalizing Proper Adjectives | 46 |

Using a Colon | 47 |

Quotation Marks for Written Dialogue | 48 |

Writing Dialogue with Quotation Marks | 49 |

More Practice with Quotation Marks | 50 |

Contractions: Using an Apostrophe | 51 |

Compound Sentences with Commas and Conjunctions | 52 |

Commas in a Series | 53 |

Introducing Semicolons | 54 |

Semicolons to Make Connections | 55 |

Apostrophes-Not Just for Words | 184 |

**Conventions of Standard English**

*ELA.L.6.1*: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Possessive Pronouns | 29 |

Pronouns and Antecedents | 30 |

Nouns That Show Ownership | 31 |

Irregular Plural Nouns | 32 |

Auxiliary or Helping Verbs | 33 |

Learning About Linking Verbs | 34 |

Comparative Adjectives | 35 |

Superlative Adjectives | 36 |

Comparative and Superlative Adverbs | 37 |

Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases | 38 to 39 |

Writing with Prepositional Phrases | 40 |

And, But, Or, Nor, For, and Yet | 41 |

Showing Emotions with Interjections | 42 |

Demonstrative Pronouns | 178 |

Relative Pronouns | 179 |

**Knowledge of Language**

*ELA.L.6.3*: Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Brainstorming and Narrowing a Topic | 8 |

Autobiographical Writing | 14 |

Biographical Sketches | 16 to 17 |

Writing an Essay | 18 |

Persuasive Writing | 19 |

Essay Writing Review | 21 |

Composing a Business Letter | 22 to 23 |

Business Letter Review | 24 |

Sentence Structure | 28 |

Compound Sentences with Commas and Conjunctions | 52 |

Flashback | 73 |

Knowing the Past | 132 |

Complex Sentences | 180 |

Compound-Complex Sentences | 181 |

**Vocabulary Acquisition and Use**

*ELA.L.6.5*: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Editing Practice | 11 |

Using the Right Style of Writing | 13 |

Denotation and Connotation | 56 |

Figurative Language: Metaphors and Similes | 58 |

Figurative Language: Onomatopoeia | 59 |

Figurative Language: Alliteration | 60 |

Figurative Language: Hyperbole | 61 |

**Vocabulary Acquisition and Use**

*ELA.L.6.4*: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Descriptive Language | 25 |

Understanding Idioms | 57 |

Learning Word Origins | 62 |

**Vocabulary Acquisition and Use**

*ELA.L.6.6*: Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Descriptive Language | 25 |

Transitional Devices | 26 |

Setting the Tone and Mood with Words | 27 |

Understanding Idioms | 57 |

Figurative Language: Metaphors and Similes | 58 |

Figurative Language: Onomatopoeia | 59 |

Learning Word Origins | 62 |

Fiction and Nonfiction | 63 |

The Language of Science | 149 |

**Key Ideas and Details**

*ELA.RI.6.1*: Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Building Background Knowledge | 10 |

Sumer | 130 |

Hammurabi | 131 |

Egypt and the Nile River | 134 |

Ancient Egyptian Mummies | 136 to 137 |

Greek City-States | 138 to 139 |

The City-State of Sparta | 140 |

Athens | 141 |

Julius Caesar and the Roman Empire | 146 |

Europe in the Middle Ages | 147 |

Food Webs | 155 |

Water and Its Cycle | 157 |

More Than Planets | 162 |

Learning About Energy | 163 |

Targeting an Audience | 182 to 183 |

**Key Ideas and Details**

*ELA.RI.6.3*: Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., *through examples or anecdotes*).

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Problem and Solution | 20 |

Athens | 141 |

Europe in the Middle Ages | 147 |

Learning About the World Around You | 150 to 151 |

Water and Its Cycle | 157 |

Art in Science | 159 |

Learning About Energy | 163 |

Targeting an Audience | 182 to 183 |

**Key Ideas and Details**

*ELA.RI.6.2*: Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Differentiating Between Fact and Opinion | 68 |

More Fact and Opinion | 69 |

Research: The Crusades and the Black Death | 148 |

Water and Its Cycle | 157 |

**Craft and Structure**

*ELA.RI.6.5*: Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Creating a Great Topic Sentence | 9 |

Expository Writing | 15 |

Hammurabi | 131 |

**Craft and Structure**

*ELA.RI.6.4*: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Denotation and Connotation | 56 |

Ancient Egyptian Mummies | 136 to 137 |

Greek City-States | 138 to 139 |

Whoâ€™s Who in Greece? | 143 |

Research About Rome | 145 |

Research: The Crusades and the Black Death | 148 |

The Language of Science | 149 |

Learning About the World Around You | 150 to 151 |

Instruments Used in Science | 152 |

One Is Part of Another | 153 |

Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers | 154 |

Food Webs | 155 |

Predator or Prey? | 156 |

Water and Its Cycle | 157 |

Clouds | 158 |

Art in Science | 159 |

Researching Serious Weather Conditions | 160 |

More with Weather | 161 |

More Than Planets | 162 |

Learning About Energy | 163 |

Types of Energy | 164 |

Targeting an Audience | 182 to 183 |

**Craft and Structure**

*ELA.RI.6.6*: Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.

Activity | Pages |
---|---|

Targeting an Audience | 182 to 183 |

**Integration of Knowledge and Ideas**

*ELA.RI.6.7*: Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., *visually, quantitatively*) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Visual Images | 74 |

Sumer | 130 |

The Indus Valley | 133 |

Egyptian Hieroglyphics | 135 |

Ancient Egyptian Mummies | 136 to 137 |

Greek Influences | 142 |

Whoâ€™s Who in Greece? | 143 |

Looking at Italy | 144 |

Research: The Crusades and the Black Death | 148 |

Learning About the World Around You | 150 to 151 |

Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers | 154 |

Water and Its Cycle | 157 |

Clouds | 158 |

Researching Serious Weather Conditions | 160 |

Types of Energy | 164 |

Guessing Matter | 165 to 167 |

**Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity**

*ELA.RI.6.10*: By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Building Background Knowledge | 10 |

Problem and Solution | 20 |

Fiction and Nonfiction | 63 |

Biographies and Autobiographies | 64 |

Fantasy and Science Fiction | 65 |

Conflict and Resolution | 66 |

Understanding the Climax of the Story | 67 |

Recurring Themes in Literature | 70 |

Points of View | 71 |

Foreshadowing | 72 |

Sumer | 130 |

Hammurabi | 131 |

The Indus Valley | 133 |

Egypt and the Nile River | 134 |

Egyptian Hieroglyphics | 135 |

Ancient Egyptian Mummies | 136 to 137 |

Greek City-States | 138 to 139 |

The City-State of Sparta | 140 |

Athens | 141 |

Greek Influences | 142 |

Julius Caesar and the Roman Empire | 146 |

Europe in the Middle Ages | 147 |

Research: The Crusades and the Black Death | 148 |

Learning About the World Around You | 150 to 151 |

One Is Part of Another | 153 |

Food Webs | 155 |

Predator or Prey? | 156 |

Water and Its Cycle | 157 |

Clouds | 158 |

Researching Serious Weather Conditions | 160 |

More Than Planets | 162 |

Learning About Energy | 163 |

**Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems.**

*Math.6.RP.A.3*: Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Fractions: Learning How to Multiply | 91 |

Multiplying Mixed Numbers | 92 |

Digging In and Dividing Fractions | 93 |

Writing Percents as Fractions | 186 |

Calculator Practice: Turning Fractions into Percents | 187 |

**Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions.**

*Math.6.NS.A.1*: Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word problems involving division of fractions by fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. *For example, create a story context for (2/3) ÷ (3/4) and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient; use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (2/3) ÷ (3/4) = 8/9 because 3/4 of 8/9 is 2/3. (In general, (a/b) ÷ (c/d) = ad/bc.) How much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 3/4-cup servings are in 2/3 of a cup of yogurt? How wide is a rectangular strip of land with length 3/4 mi and area 1/2 square mi?*.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Digging In and Dividing Fractions | 93 |

**Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples.**

*Math.6.NS.B.3*: Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multi-digit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Decimals and Multiplication | 77 |

Decimals in Word Problems | 78 |

More with Mean | 100 |

Word Problems: Finding the Median | 102 |

Finding Circumference | 117 |

Finding Circumference with the Radius | 118 |

More with Circumference | 119 |

Finding the Area of a Circle | 120 |

Triangles: Finding the Area | 122 |

Volume with Rectangular Prisms | 123 |

Finding the Volume of a Cylinder | 124 |

Word Problems with Decimals | 185 |

Writing Percents as Decimals | 188 |

**Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples.**

*Math.6.NS.B.4*: Find the greatest common factor of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100 and the least common multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to 12. Use the distributive property to express a sum of two whole numbers 1–100 with a common factor as a multiple of a sum of two whole numbers with no common factor. *For example, express 36 + 8 as 4 (9 + 2).*.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Adding Fractions with Unlike Denominators | 89 |

Subtracting Fractions with Unlike Denominators | 90 |

Fractions: Learning How to Multiply | 91 |

Multiplying Mixed Numbers | 92 |

Digging In and Dividing Fractions | 93 |

Help to Remember | 98 |

**Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples.**

*Math.6.NS.B.2*: Fluently divide multi-digit numbers using the standard algorithm.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Finding the Mean | 99 |

More with Mean | 100 |

Median | 101 |

Word Problems: Finding the Median | 102 |

Mixed Practice: Mean, Median, Mode, and Range | 106 |

Liquid Measurements | 126 |

Customary Units of Length | 127 |

**Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers.**

*Math.6.NS.C.6*: Understand a rational number as a point on the number line. Extend number line diagrams and coordinate axes familiar from previous grades to represent points on the line and in the plane with negative number coordinates.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

The Role of Positive and Negative Integers | 79 |

Beginning with Integers | 80 |

Adding Positive and Negative Integers | 81 |

More Problems with Integers | 83 |

Working with Integers | 85 |

Working with a Coordinate Plane | 112 |

**Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers.**

*Math.6.NS.C.7*: Understand ordering and absolute value of rational numbers.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

The Role of Positive and Negative Integers | 79 |

Beginning with Integers | 80 |

Adding Positive and Negative Integers | 81 |

More Problems with Integers | 83 |

Working with Integers | 85 |

**Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers.**

*Math.6.NS.C.5*: Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, credits/debits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

The Role of Positive and Negative Integers | 79 |

Beginning with Integers | 80 |

Adding Positive and Negative Integers | 81 |

Subtracting Integers: Adding the Opposite | 82 |

More Problems with Integers | 83 |

Calculator Practice with Mixed Integer Addition and Subtraction | 84 |

Working with Integers | 85 |

Multiplying Integers: Learning the Rules | 86 |

Calculator Practice: Multiplying Integers | 87 |

Dividing Integers | 88 |

**Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions.**

*Math.6.EE.A.3*: Apply the properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. *For example, apply the distributive property to the expression 3 (2 + x) to produce the equivalent expression 6 + 3x; apply the distributive property to the expression 24x + 18y to produce the equivalent expression 6 (4x + 3y); apply properties of operations to y + y + y to produce the equivalent expression 3y*.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Either Way, It's the Same | 75 |

The Associative Property | 76 |

Excellent Exponents | 94 |

Mixed Multiplication Practice with Exponents | 95 |

In Which Order? | 97 |

**Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions.**

*Math.6.EE.A.4*: Identify when two expressions are equivalent (i.e., when the two expressions name the same number regardless of which value is substituted into them). *For example, the expressions y + y + y and 3y are equivalent because they name the same number regardless of which number y stands for.*.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Either Way, It's the Same | 75 |

The Associative Property | 76 |

Excellent Exponents | 94 |

**Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions.**

*Math.6.EE.A.1*: Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-number exponents.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Excellent Exponents | 94 |

Mixed Multiplication Practice with Exponents | 95 |

In Which Order? | 97 |

Variables and Expressions | 190 |

**Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions.**

*Math.6.EE.A.2*: Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Variables and Expressions | 190 |

**Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities.**

*Math.6.EE.B.7*: Solve real-world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form *x* + *p* = *q* and* px* = *q* for cases in which *p*, *q* and *x* are all nonnegative rational numbers.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Word Problems with Decimals | 185 |

Equations | 189 |

**Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities.**

*Math.6.EE.B.6*: Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Equations | 189 |

Variables and Expressions | 190 |

**Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume.**

*Math.6.G.A.1*: Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these technique in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Rectangles: Finding the Area | 121 |

Triangles: Finding the Area | 122 |

**Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume.**

*Math.6.G.A.2*: Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with fractional edge lengths by packing it with unit cubes of the appropriate unit fraction edge lengths, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths of the prism. Apply the formulas *V = l w h* and *V = b h* to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Volume with Rectangular Prisms | 123 |

**Develop understanding of statistical variability.**

*Math.6.SP.A.3*: Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Finding the Mean | 99 |

More with Mean | 100 |

Median | 101 |

Word Problems: Finding the Median | 102 |

Mode | 103 |

Word Problems: Working with Mode | 104 |

Working with Range in Data | 105 |

Mixed Practice: Mean, Median, Mode, and Range | 106 |

Organizing Data with a Frequency Table | 107 |

Bar Graphs | 108 to 109 |

**Develop understanding of statistical variability.**

*Math.6.SP.A.2*: Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Finding the Mean | 99 |

More with Mean | 100 |

Median | 101 |

Word Problems: Finding the Median | 102 |

Mode | 103 |

Word Problems: Working with Mode | 104 |

Working with Range in Data | 105 |

Mixed Practice: Mean, Median, Mode, and Range | 106 |

Organizing Data with a Frequency Table | 107 |

Bar Graphs | 108 to 109 |

**Develop understanding of statistical variability.**

*Math.6.SP.A.1*: Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. *For example, “How old am I?” is not a statistical question, but “How old are the students in my school?” is a statistical question because one anticipates variability in students’ ages*.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

More with Mean | 100 |

Median | 101 |

Word Problems: Finding the Median | 102 |

Word Problems: Working with Mode | 104 |

Working with Range in Data | 105 |

Organizing Data with a Frequency Table | 107 |

Bar Graphs | 108 to 109 |

Line Graphs | 110 |

Understanding Circle Graphs | 111 |

**Summarize and describe distributions.**

*Math.6.SP.B.5*: Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by:

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Finding the Mean | 99 |

More with Mean | 100 |

Median | 101 |

Word Problems: Finding the Median | 102 |

Mode | 103 |

Word Problems: Working with Mode | 104 |

Working with Range in Data | 105 |

Mixed Practice: Mean, Median, Mode, and Range | 106 |

Organizing Data with a Frequency Table | 107 |

Bar Graphs | 108 to 109 |

Line Graphs | 110 |

Understanding Circle Graphs | 111 |

Stem-and-Leaf Plots | 191 |

**Summarize and describe distributions.**

*Math.6.SP.B.4*: Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Stem-and-Leaf Plots | 191 |

Common Core State Standards and Expectations© Copyright 2010. National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. All rights reserved.