**Key Ideas and Details**

*ELA.RI.4.1*: Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

Activity | Pages |
---|---|

Looking at Text | 56 to 57 |

Changes Come for Early Americans | 130 |

Understanding the Earth | 153 |

Gravity | 166 |

Tools and Equipment of Scientists | 167 |

**Key Ideas and Details**

*ELA.RI.4.3*: Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Understanding the Passage | 59 |

Early Native American Dwellings | 132 |

Changing Times | 136 |

More with Heredity | 151 |

Planets and the Solar System | 155 |

Label the Planets | 156 |

Science and Writing | 158 |

All Connected | 159 |

Learning About Food Chains | 160 |

**Key Ideas and Details**

*ELA.RI.4.2*: Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Living from the Land | 131 |

Changing Times | 136 |

Science and Writing | 157 |

**Craft and Structure**

*ELA.RI.4.4*: Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a *grade 4 topic or subject area*.

Activity | Pages |
---|---|

Looking at Text | 56 to 57 |

Understanding the Passage | 59 |

Decoding Unknown Words | 60 |

Knowing the Difference | 62 |

Context Clues | 63 |

Point of View | 64 |

Living from the Land | 131 |

Earliest Explorers | 133 |

New England States | 138 |

Mid-Atlantic States | 139 |

Southeastern States | 140 |

Mid-South and Gulf States | 141 |

Plains and the Midwestern States | 142 to 143 |

Rocky Mountains and Southwestern States | 144 |

Alaska, Hawaii, and the Pacific Coast States | 145 |

The Hemispheres | 148 |

All About Heredity | 149 |

Inherited Traits and Learned Behaviors | 150 |

More with Heredity | 151 |

Understanding the Earth | 153 |

Planets and the Solar System | 155 |

Label the Planets | 156 |

All Connected | 159 |

Learning About Food Chains | 160 |

Photosynthesis | 162 |

What Is Matter? | 163 |

Looking at Water | 164 |

Understanding Force and Motion | 165 |

Gravity | 166 |

Tools and Equipment of Scientists | 167 |

Writing Poetry with a Set Rhyme Scheme | 184 |

**Craft and Structure**

*ELA.RI.4.5*: Describe the overall structure (e.g., *chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution*) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Understanding the Passage | 59 |

Cause and Effect | 69 |

Label the Planets | 156 |

Understanding Force and Motion | 165 |

**Craft and Structure**

*ELA.RI.4.6*: Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Point of View | 64 |

Your Own Point of View | 65 |

Cause and Effect | 69 |

**Integration of Knowledge and Ideas**

*ELA.RI.4.8*: Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Author's Purpose | 68 |

**Integration of Knowledge and Ideas**

*ELA.RI.4.7*: Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., *in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages*) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Watching Out for Stereotypes | 73 |

Early Native American Dwellings | 132 |

Researching Important Americans | 137 |

New England States | 138 |

Mid-Atlantic States | 139 |

Southeastern States | 140 |

Mid-South and Gulf States | 141 |

Plains and the Midwestern States | 142 to 143 |

Rocky Mountains and Southwestern States | 144 |

Alaska, Hawaii, and the Pacific Coast States | 145 |

Looking at the World | 146 to 147 |

The Hemispheres | 148 |

Which Type of Trait? | 152 |

Art and Science | 154 |

Label the Planets | 156 |

Science and Writing | 158 |

Creating Your Own Food Chain | 161 |

What Is Matter? | 163 |

Looking at Water | 164 |

**Integration of Knowledge and Ideas**

*ELA.RI.4.9*: Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Researching Important Americans | 137 |

**Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity**

*ELA.RI.4.10*: By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Understanding the Passage | 59 |

Context Clues | 63 |

Point of View | 64 |

Plot | 66 to 67 |

Changes Come for Early Americans | 130 |

Living from the Land | 131 |

Earliest Explorers | 133 |

Declaring Independence | 134 |

Understanding the Principles of Democracy | 135 |

Changing Times | 136 |

Researching Important Americans | 137 |

Looking at the World | 146 to 147 |

The Hemispheres | 148 |

All About Heredity | 149 |

Inherited Traits and Learned Behaviors | 150 |

More with Heredity | 151 |

Understanding the Earth | 153 |

Planets and the Solar System | 155 |

Science and Writing | 157 |

All Connected | 159 |

Learning About Food Chains | 160 |

Photosynthesis | 162 |

Understanding Force and Motion | 165 |

Gravity | 166 |

**Conventions of Standard English**

*ELA.L.4.1*: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Purpose of Writing | 8 |

Brainstorming and More | 9 |

Writing Exclamatory and Imperative Sentences | 13 |

Practicing Cursive Writing | 14 |

Pronouns Take the Place of Nouns | 15 |

Pronouns Can Show Ownership | 16 |

Singular and Plural Nouns | 17 |

More with Singular and Plural Nouns | 18 |

Common and Proper Nouns | 19 |

Unscramble the Common and Proper Nouns | 20 |

The Subject Noun | 21 |

Verbs with Action | 22 |

Verbs: Past and Present | 23 |

Adjectives: Making Things Interesting | 24 |

Choosing Great Adjectives | 25 |

Learning Adverbs | 26 |

Adverbs, Adverbs, Adverbs | 27 |

Conjunctions: Connecting Words | 28 |

Watch Those Negative Words | 29 |

Working with Helping Verbs | 180 |

Writing a Business Letter | 183 |

**Conventions of Standard English**

*ELA.L.4.2*: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Drafting and Revising | 10 |

Edit for Spelling | 11 |

Writing and Editing Practice | 12 |

Common and Proper Nouns | 19 |

Unscramble the Common and Proper Nouns | 20 |

Correct Contractions | 32 |

Capitalization: Making the Right Choice | 33 |

Capitalizing in Quotes | 34 |

Writing Letters and Capitalization | 35 |

Writing a Letter with Correct Capitalization | 36 |

End Marks | 37 |

Abbreviations | 38 |

Short Stuff | 39 |

Using Commas with Dates and Addresses | 40 |

Commas in Parts of a Letter | 41 |

Commas in a Letter | 42 |

Apostrophes to Show Ownership | 43 |

Silly Sentences with Apostrophes And Possession | 44 |

Colons | 45 |

Titles That Need Quotation Marks | 46 |

Quotation Marks and Titles | 47 |

Quotes and Quotation Marks | 48 |

She Said, He Said | 49 |

Quotation Marks: Mixed Review | 50 |

Finding Sources | 53 |

Alphabetical Order | 54 |

Paraphrasing Quotes | 55 |

New England States | 138 |

Mid-Atlantic States | 139 |

Southeastern States | 140 |

Mid-South and Gulf States | 141 |

Plains and the Midwestern States | 142 to 143 |

Working with Quotation Marks | 178 |

Commas with Appositives | 182 |

Writing a Business Letter | 183 |

**Knowledge of Language**

*ELA.L.4.3*: Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Watch Those Negative Words | 29 |

Correct Contractions | 32 |

Capitalizing in Quotes | 34 |

Writing Letters and Capitalization | 35 |

Writing a Letter with Correct Capitalization | 36 |

Abbreviations | 38 |

Short Stuff | 39 |

Using Commas with Dates and Addresses | 40 |

Commas in Parts of a Letter | 41 |

Commas in a Letter | 42 |

Quotes and Quotation Marks | 48 |

She Said, He Said | 49 |

Quotation Marks: Mixed Review | 50 |

Paraphrasing Quotes | 55 |

Organizing a Report | 58 |

Synonyms and Antonyms | 61 |

Knowing the Difference | 62 |

Watching Out for Stereotypes | 73 |

Do You Think in Stereotypes? | 74 |

New England States | 138 |

Mid-Atlantic States | 139 |

Southeastern States | 140 |

Mid-South and Gulf States | 141 |

Plains and the Midwestern States | 142 to 143 |

Working with Quotation Marks | 178 |

The Same and the Opposite | 181 |

Commas with Appositives | 182 |

Writing a Business Letter | 183 |

**Vocabulary Acquisition and Use**

*ELA.L.4.5*: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Watch Those Negative Words | 29 |

Sweet Compound Words | 30 to 31 |

Looking at Text | 56 to 57 |

Synonyms and Antonyms | 61 |

Figurative Language in Literature | 70 |

Metaphors, Similes, and Hyperboles | 71 |

Mixed Figurative Language Review | 72 |

Watching Out for Stereotypes | 73 |

Which Is the One? | 179 |

The Same and the Opposite | 181 |

**Vocabulary Acquisition and Use**

*ELA.L.4.6*: Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., *quizzed, whined, stammered*) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., *wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).*

Activity | Pages |
---|---|

Sweet Compound Words | 30 to 31 |

Narrowing Down an Idea | 51 |

KWL Charts | 52 |

Alphabetical Order | 54 |

Decoding Unknown Words | 60 |

Knowing the Difference | 62 |

Context Clues | 63 |

Tools and Equipment of Scientists | 167 |

Writing Poetry with a Set Rhyme Scheme | 184 |

**Vocabulary Acquisition and Use**

*ELA.L.4.4*: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Narrowing Down an Idea | 51 |

KWL Charts | 52 |

Finding Sources | 53 |

Alphabetical Order | 54 |

Watching Out for Stereotypes | 73 |

Do You Think in Stereotypes? | 74 |

Which Is the One? | 179 |

**Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.**

*Math.4.OA.A.3*: Solve multi-step word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Two-Digit Word Problems | 77 |

Subtraction Word Problems | 79 |

Three-Digit Addition Word Problems | 83 |

Mixed Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction | 84 |

Working with Simple Equations | 122 |

More Simple Equations | 123 |

**Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.**

*Math.4.OA.A.1*: Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Mixed Multiplication Practice with Factors 1-12 | 88 |

Calculator Multiplication | 89 |

Find It | 90 |

Either Way, It's the Same | 190 |

**Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers.**

*Math.4.NBT.A.3*: Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Addition with Estimation | 87 |

**Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers.**

*Math.4.NBT.A.1*: Recognize that in a multi-digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right.* For example, recognize that 700 ÷ 70 = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division*.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Even Divisibility | 95 |

**Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers.**

*Math.4.NBT.A.2*: Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Equal or Not? | 124 |

**Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.**

*Math.4.NBT.B.4*: Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Love That Addition | 75 |

What Number is Needed? | 76 |

Two-Digit Word Problems | 77 |

Two-Digit Subtraction | 78 |

Subtraction Word Problems | 79 |

Mixed Addition and Subtraction with Two-Digit Numbers | 80 |

Three-Digit Addition | 81 |

Three-Digit Subtraction | 82 |

Three-Digit Addition Word Problems | 83 |

Mixed Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction | 84 |

4-, 5-, and 6- Digit Addition | 85 |

4-, 5-, and 6- Digit Subtraction | 86 |

Addition with Estimation | 87 |

**Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.**

*Math.4.NBT.B.5*: Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Mixed Multiplication Practice with Factors 1-12 | 88 |

Calculator Multiplication | 89 |

Practice Makes Perfect | 91 |

Even Numbers and Multiplication | 92 |

Mastery Multiplication | 93 |

More Multiplication Practice | 94 |

Finding the Area of Squares and Rectangles | 111 |

Volume - Not Sound | 113 |

**Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.**

*Math.4.NBT.B.6*: Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Even Divisibility | 95 |

Dividing Whole Numbers | 96 |

Simply Calculated | 97 |

**Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.**

*Math.4.NF.A.1*: Explain why a fraction *a*/*b* is equivalent to a fraction (*n* × *a*)/(*n* × *b*) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Understanding Fractions | 104 |

Finding the Fraction | 105 |

Adding Fractions | 106 |

Subtracting Fractions | 107 |

Working with Improper Fractions | 108 |

Fractions in Word Problems | 109 |

Which is Less? Which is More? | 185 |

**Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.**

*Math.4.NF.A.2*: Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Which is Less? Which is More? | 185 |

**Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.**

*Math.4.NF.B.3*: Understand a fraction *a*/*b* with *a* > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/*b*.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Adding Fractions | 106 |

Subtracting Fractions | 107 |

Working with Improper Fractions | 108 |

Fractions in Word Problems | 109 |

**Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.**

*Math.4.NF.B.4*: Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Triangles: Finding the Area | 112 |

**Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.**

*Math.4.NF.C.6*: Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. *For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram*.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Probability as a Fraction | 121 |

**Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.**

*Math.4.NF.C.5*: Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100.^{2} *For example, express 3/10 as 30/100, and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100*.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Probability as a Fraction | 121 |

**Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements.**

*Math.4.MD.A.2*: Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Adding with Decimals | 98 |

Subtracting Decimals | 99 |

Multiplying Money | 100 |

Calculator Practice: Multiply Decimals | 101 |

Dividing with Decimals | 102 |

Decimals in Word Problems | 103 |

Adding Fractions | 106 |

Subtracting Fractions | 107 |

Fractions in Word Problems | 109 |

Finding the Perimeter of a Rectangle | 110 |

Circumference of Circles | 115 |

What's the Deal? | 188 |

**Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements.**

*Math.4.MD.A.3*: Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. *For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor*.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Finding the Perimeter of a Rectangle | 110 |

Finding the Area of Squares and Rectangles | 111 |

**Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles.**

*Math.4.MD.C.5*: Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement:

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Identifying Angles | 114 |

What's in a Triangle? | 187 |

**Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.**

*Math.4.G.A.2*: Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Identifying Angles | 114 |

Recognizing Different Shapes | 186 |

What's in a Triangle? | 187 |

**Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.**

*Math.4.G.A.1*: Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Identifying Angles | 114 |

Similar and Congruent | 117 |

Slide, Flip, and Turn | 118 |

Working with Lines | 119 |

**Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.**

*Math.4.G.A.3*: Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry.

Activity | Page |
---|---|

Symmetry | 116 |

Common Core State Standards and Expectations© Copyright 2010. National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. All rights reserved.